ISSN 1392-3196 / e-ISSN 2335-8947
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 110, No. 4 (2023), p. 319–328
DOI 10.13080/z-a.2023.110.036

The environmental and genetic factors affect the productivity and quality of potato cultivars



This study aimed to evaluate the impact of environmental and genetic factors on the yield, starch, and dry matter content in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars belonging to different maturity groups considering cultivars diversity according to SSR markers. Twenty-four very early, early, medium, and late potato cultivars were evaluated. Field experiments were conducted in 2018–2020 in two locations: Forest Steppe and Forest zones of Ukraine. The SSRs analysis was carried out in 2021 using eight markers: STM0019, STM3009, STM2005, STM2028, STM3012, STM3023, STM5136, and STM5148. During this study, it was found that the growing zone and the year weather conditions had the greatest influence on the potato tuber yield – 54% and 24%, while the effect of the cultivar genotype on the tuber yield was 8%. It was found that the cultivar genotype and the year weather conditions had the greatest influence on the potato tuber dry matter content – 36% and 30%, respectively. The impact of cultivar genotype on the starch content was 31%, while the influence of the year weather conditions reached 21% and the growing zone 3%. Based on the distribution of alleles obtained by SSR markers, the majority of the very early (‘Riviera’, ‘Prada’, ‘Duma’, and ‘Vzirets’) and one of the early (‘Zhytnytsia’) tested potato cultivars were included in one cluster group. It was revealed that the 416 bp allele was identified by the STM5148 marker mainly in the very early potato cultivars, and the 424 bp allele was detected only in the very early and early ones. The study of SSRs and their associations with maturity can be considered as a reliable and rapid method for potato genotyping to find favourable combinations of alleles. Thus, to increase the nutritional value and productive potential of potatoes by developing and improving the main elements of cultivation technology, the biological characteristics of the potato cultivars in the agricultural and climatic conditions of Ukraine should be taken into account.

Keywords: tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content, genetic diversity, maturity group.

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