ISSN 1392-3196
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 100, No. 1 (2013), p. 105–111
UDK  634.1.004.12 / DOI 10.13080/z-a.2013.100.014

Spectrophotometrically determined pigment contents of intact apple fruits and their relations with quality: a review



Consumer expectations of apple fruit quality have been steadily increasing over the last couple of decades. One of the main quality attributes affecting product price is colour, determined primarily by the relative amounts of pigments chlorophylls, carotenoids, and anthocyanins, which can be measured non-destructively by visible spectrophotometry.

This paper provides a brief overview of studies dealing with the optical pigment-determination of intact apple fruits in visible part of electromagnetic spectrum. Firstly ripening-associated pigment changes in apples as well as the basics of light interaction and measurements in turbid materials are explained. Subsequently the two most appropriate methods for pigment determination of intact apple fruit are presented along with examples. This is followed by a discussion of the various reflectance and remittance indices for the qualification, as well as quantification, of the main apple pigments. Results are reported regarding studies on the relationships between spectral data and derived indices with various destructive quality and ripening parameters. In the conclusion some of the main findings reviewed in this paper are outlined and discussed briefly.

Key words: anthocyanins, apple, chlorophylls, colour, maturity, quality, visible spectrophotometry.

Full text:  100_1_str14.pdf