ISSN 1392-3196 / e-ISSN 2335-8947
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, vol. 104, No. 2 (2017), p. 173–178
DOI  10.13080/z-a.2017.104.022

Fusarium mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in Slovak winter wheat grains



The contamination of unprocessed winter wheat grain by mycotoxins was detected on the territory of the Slovak Republic with the focus on primary producers, after the harvest in 2009–2010, 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 growing periods. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was the most common Fusarium toxin, detected in 85% of samples, 2% of samples exceeded the maximum level set by Regulation (EC) 1881/2006. Nivalenol (NIV) was detected in 63% of samples, T-2 toxin – in 73% and HT-2 toxin – in 79%. The mean concentration of DON was 368.4 mg kg-1, for NIV – 34.8 mg kg-1, for T-2 toxin – 38.2 mg kg-1 and for HT-2 toxin – 29.9 mg kg-1. Co-occurrence of DON with NIV was detected in 15.5% of positive samples and their co-occurrence with other mycotoxins represented additional 7.35%. Co-occurrence of DON with zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in 25.9% of positive samples.

To prevent the occurrence of mycotoxins at levels considered harmful to human health, a number of measures are needed at different levels, from good agricultural practices, breeding for resistance, to adequate legislation, methods and programs for food control that influence food security.

Key words: co-occurrence, type A and B trichothecenes, winter wheat, zearalenone.

Full text: 104_2_str22.pdf